Management of Open Wounds
Categories Medical news

Management of Open Wounds

The physician has a vital role in the wound assessment and also to delineate treatment objective at any point of time.  The main objective of wound healing is to remove the non-viable tissue material by various methods for the exposure of healthy well-perfused tissue for proliferation and migration in the wound bed. Below mentioned are the recent management strategies for open wound.

Hydrogel Dressings

Hydrogels are generally made up of complex hydrophilic polymers with maximum water content (90%) and semiocclusive in nature (Weller and Team, 2019). A recent clinical trial showed that nano fibrillar cellulose hydrogel dressing in patients undergoing skin graft donor displayed significant improvement in Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, viscoelasticity and elastic modulus post-operatively as compared to copolymer dressing (Koivuniemi et al., 2020).


Hydrocolloids are the dressing materials that retain moisture and contain gel-forming agents such as pectin and gelatin. A recent meta-analysis shows that patients treated with hydrocolloid dressing displayed a significant decrease in pressure ulcers caused by non-invasive ventilation. Further, in this study, the incidence of pressure ulcers was lower in hydrocolloid dressing treated patients as compared to the guaze

Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT)

NPWT is a reliable adjunct strategy for wound management where surgery is not possible. Once the wound is in a well-vascularized condition, NPWT elicits the healing by secondary intention, inhibition of cytokines, angiogenesis, remodelling of extracellular matrix and deposition of granulation tissue (Anghel and Kim, 2016).

In a study done by Kucharzewski et al. patients with chronic venous leg ulceration with an ulceration surface area was 62.6 cm2were treated with NPWT. Among, the 15 patients, 10 were subjected to NPWT (50 to 200 mmHg) and ulcer healing was observed in 6 weeks whereas in the remaining 5 patients the healing was observed in 20 weeks (Kucharzewski et al., 2014). A meta-analysis evidence shows that NPWT was associated with a significant reduction in wound infection (relative risk (RR) 0·54, 95 per cent CI 0·33 to 0·89) and seroma formation (RR 0·48, 0·27 to 0·84) compared with the conservative management (Hyldig et al., 2016).

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)

HBOT is a procedure in which 100% oxygen at greater than 1 atmosphere of absolute pressure is administered to the wound area, through a specialized designed chamber (Lam et al., 2017). A previous Cochrane reviewed the efficacy HBOT for chronic wounds based on the 8 published RCTS in diabetic ulcer patients. The outcome of the analysis showed that HBOT enhances the short-term wound healing up to 6 weeks and also decreases the amputation rates


Weller C., Team V. (2019). “Interactive dressings and their role in moist wound management,” in Advanced Textiles for Wound Care, 2nd ed. Ed. Rajendran S. (United Kingdom: Woodhead Publishing Limited; ), 105–134

Koivuniemi R, Hakkarainen T, Kiiskinen J, Kosonen M, Vuola J, Valtonen J, Luukko K, Kavola H, Yliperttula M. Clinical study of nanofibrillar cellulose hydrogel dressing for skin graft donor site treatment. Advances in wound care. 2020 Apr 1;9(4):199-210

Cai JY, Zha ML, Chen HL. Use of a Hydrocolloid Dressing in the Prevention of Device-related Pressure Ulcers DuringNoninvasive Ventilation: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Wound Manag Prev. 2019 Feb;65(2):30-38.

Anghel EL, Kim PJ. Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy: A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence. PlastReconstr Surg. 2016 Sep;138(3 Suppl):129S-137S

Kucharzewski M, Mieszczański P, Wilemska-Kucharzewska K, Taradaj J, Kuropatnicki A, Sliwiński Z. The application of negative pressure wound therapy in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulceration: authors experience. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:297230.

Hyldig N, Birke-Sorensen H, Kruse M, Vinter C, Joergensen JS, Sorensen JA, Mogensen O, Lamont RF, Bille C. Meta-analysis of negative-pressure wound therapy for closed surgical incisions. Br J Surg. 2016 Apr;103(5):477-86.

Lam G, Fontaine R, Ross FL, Chiu ES. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Exploring the Clinical Evidence. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2017 Apr;30(4):181-190

Kranke P, Bennett MH, Martyn-St James M, Schnabel A, Debus SE, Weibel S. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for chronic wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;6:CD004123

Good Publications Practice
Categories Scientific Communication

Communicating Company-Sponsored Medical Research: Following Good Publications Practice


The Good Publication Practice guidelines aim to bring transparency and authenticity to the data that is published in company-sponsored medical research. The guidelines provide the roadmap for ethical publication and to incorporate all the data which is required for evolving further research. The guidelines manage the publications that occur in scientific peer-reviewed journals as well as the presentation of posters in conferences and seminars.

Good Publication Practice Guidelines

The Good Publication Practice Guidelines provide recommendations about the publications of research studies that are sponsored by the pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and diagnostic companies. These guidelines are important, keeping in mind the very fact that such publications need to have a high standard of ethics and transparency. Many such publications show a path for future research. Any data fabrication or hiding of data may affect further research and harm the overall healthcare system. Following are some of the important aspects incorporated in Good Publication Practice Guidelines.

Completeness: The research paper should contain all the data related to the study. The publication should contain both positive and negative findings. The study should also be published regardless of whether the drug under the study is investigational, is approved or licensed, or withdrawn from the market.

Regulatory laws: The sponsors and researchers should follow all the relevant regulatory laws in the geographical area where the study is conducted. The study should also follow the guidelines of the food and drug administration department, such as USFDA in the USA, UKMHRA in the United Kingdom, and CDSCO in India.

Ethical guidelines: Maintaining ethical standards are essential while conducting a research study. The study should follow ethical guidelines at all times during the study. The author and sponsor should avoid duplicate publication i.e., publishing in more than one peer-reviewed journal.

Collaboration: A collaboration should be present between all the authors and contributors. The research study should reflect the collaborative efforts of all the people involved in the study. These may include statisticians, clinicians, professional medical writers, and researchers.

Roles and responsibilities: The sponsors should fix the roles and responsibilities of each contributor through a written agreement. The sponsor should define the role before the process of research writing starts. The agreement should include resolving any differences in data interpretation through scientific discussion.

Access: Data is important while writing the research paper. The sponsor should ensure that the author has access to complete and correct data. The agreement between the author and sponsor should disclose the publication process and role of the sponsor in reviewing the publication. Inform the author in advance about the assistance during the publication process. The sponsor or the research organization may remove confidential data related to the patient if required.

Responsibility and accountability: The authors should take responsibility and are accountable for the accuracy and presentation of data. The authors should be the sole authority to provide final approval for publication. The agreement between authors and sponsors should uphold the rights of authors in publishing accurate data without any hindrance from the sponsors.

Name of the contributors: The publication should contain the name of each author who contributes to the publication of the research paper. It is important to mention the level of contribution of each contributor, such as medical writer or statistician, to avoid any ambiguity.

Sponsor details: The publication clearly mentions the sponsor detail. The publication and presentation should also contain the role of the sponsor in funding, analysis, and execution of the research.

Conflict of interest: Disclosing the conflict of interest in the publication increases its authenticity. The authors and the contributors should clearly state if there is any conflict of interest. The publication should also mention the name of an individual or organization who has any vested interest in the findings of the research.

Trial registration: The registration of the trial with the appropriate authority adds value to the research study. It signifies that all the regulatory laws and ethics are followed while conducting the study. Some reputed journals do not publish the original research articles without trial registration.

Plagiarism: The authors should avoid any plagiarism. They should ensure that the publication is their original work. However, if there is any need to incorporate the copied material, the author should take due permission and properly acknowledge the original writer.

Hiring a professional medical writer: Professional medical writers are experts in writing the manuscript. The medical writers assist the authors in writing the medical manuscript completely, accurately, and on time. They are of great help in cases where the authors have limited knowledge about the presentation of data and other publication requirements.


The Good Publications Guidelines pose various requirements for both the authors and the sponsors. These requirements include complete and accurate data presentation, trial registration, responsibility and accountability of authors, acknowledgement of authors, and details of sponsors.

Importance of Copyediting in Manuscripts
Categories Scientific Communication

Importance of Copyediting in Manuscripts


Copyediting is a part of the manuscript writing process. It helps the author in improving the quality of the manuscript. Not all authors have great command over their English, especially on grammar. At times, the journals reject the manuscript because of grammatical errors and spelling mistakes. Thus, the author must take the services of copyediting agencies to improve the manuscript.


Copyediting a process of checking the content of the manuscript. Copyediting is done by an experienced copyeditor. The function of a copyeditor is to check the grammatical errors, spelling mistakes, syntax, punctuation, and factual errors in the manuscript. Copyediting improves the authenticity of the manuscript and removes any ambiguous information. It also helps to design the content to improve readability and consistency. The copyeditor also checks if the language used is consistent with the technical field and pays attention to the data accuracy.

Difference between Editing and Copyediting

There is a difference between editing and copyediting. The editor may be well-aware of the relevant technical field. The editing involves the collaborative efforts of the editor and author. After editing, there may be substantial changes in the content. The editor may advise the author to change the sentence to make the content clearer. However, the copyeditor is more concerned about the language of the sentence. The copyeditor may not advise the author to completely change the content, but he can advise rephrasing a sentence to make it clear. Further, the copyeditor checks the grammatical and syntax errors and spellings in the content.

Frequently Used Copyediting Phrases

Various copyediting phrases are commonly found in the peer-reviews. These phrases help the author to understand the expectation of reviewers. It also helps in identifying the mistakes that are not to be repeated in future manuscripts. Some of the copyediting notations include clarity, references, is well written, confusing, clarify, typo, tables, titles, transition, and appendix.

Significance of Copyediting

A manuscript is a scientific document that provides useful and practical information to the reader. It is important to note that the reader may apply the theory mentioned in the manuscript in practical life. A significant example, in this case, is an evidence-based treatment, in which the doctor refers to the research articles to find the best possible treatment for their patients. Thus, the manuscript must be written in clear and easy to follow language with a consistent style followed throughout the content. Copyediting the manuscript helps in achieving the above goals. Following are some of the advantages of copyediting a manuscript:

Improve the quality of overall content: The primary purpose of copyediting is to improve the overall quality of the content. By checking all the parameters such as grammar, structure, and consistency, the copyeditor may improve the quality.

Improves accuracy: The copyeditor improves the accuracy of the content. As the copyeditors are not experts in a particular subject, they read the content like a layman. This helps them to ask questions when the content is unclear. It improves the accuracy and flow of the content.

Prevents ambiguity: As manuscripts are important sources of information for doing advanced research or treating a patient. Thus, the writer should avoid sentences that deliver ambiguous information. Copyediting ensures that the manuscript has no ambiguous content.

Choice of correct words: Copyediting helps in optimizing the choice of words. Different technical fields have different sets of words. Using the correct words improves the quality of the paper. Although other words are not wrong, they are just not the best fit in a particular situation.

Accelerates publishing: Copy editing a manuscript helps in accelerating the publication. It is because the reviewers have only to concentrate on the content of the manuscript. There are very fewer chances that the manuscript is sent for revising grammatical errors or structural errors after copyediting.

Reduce rejections: There are chances that the reviewers may reject the manuscript because of several grammatical errors, poor structure, significant ambiguity in the content, and inaccuracy. Copyediting helps in reducing the manuscript rejections.

Consistent abbreviations: There are certain universal abbreviations in a particular technical field, such as the medical field. The copyeditor will also check the consistency of abbreviation throughout the document.

Integrity and confidence: The manuscript flow should be such that it instils a sense of integrity and confidence in the content. Poor grammar, lack of flow, and inconsistency in structure indicate a poor-quality manuscript, and the reader may not use it or cite it during his research. Copyediting improves the overall content and instils confidence in the reader about the content.


Taking the services of a copyeditor has various advantages. The advantages are quality improvement, avoiding ambiguity, reducing rejections, accelerating publications, and improve the authenticity of the manuscript. The manuscript should convey clear and unambiguous information about the research.


Importance of Evidence-Based Medicine on Research and Practice
Categories Scientific Communication

Importance of Evidence-Based Medicine on Research and Practice


Evidence-based medicine is the system of practicing medicine in such a way that it results in improving outcomes and reduces the overall healthcare cost. Evidence-based medicine also takes care of the individual preference of the patients, along with the clinical expertise of the clinicians.

Evidence-Based Medicine

Evidence-based medicine is the multidisciplinary approach to provide the best care to the patient at the right time. Evidence-based medicine involves the use of the experience of the clinician and the updated evidence available to make the best decision related to the treatment regimen.

It is to be noted that the research article required to alter or continue the treatment strategy should be strong and fulfil the criteria to become credible evidence. This creates a basic difference between evidence-based medicine and traditional medicine.

In evidence-based medicine, the doctor and the healthcare professionals should make the best possible application of the evidence to raise the standard of patient care. The process of evidence-based medicine comprises evidence selection and knowledge translation in terms of patient care.

Evolution of the Evidence-Based Medicine

Gordon Guyatt coined the term ‘Evidence-Based Medicine’ in the year 1990. This term was first used in an article published in the year 1992 in JAMA. However, the use of evidence-based medicine started much before this.

Before evidence-based medicine, medical decisions were made based on individual clinician’s experience or the marketing strategies of pharmaceutical companies. Many clinicians disagreed with this approach and advocate for the practice, which is backed up by the latest medical knowledge.

Evidence-based medicine is based on two important pillars. While one pillar indicates the use of best healthcare practice based on concrete evidence, the other pillar ensures that the clinicians should inform in detail the new treatment to the patients so that the patient can make informed decisions.

Importance in Research and Practice

Evidence-based medicine is positively affecting all the important aspects of healthcare, which include patient care, patient’s health, and the related cost. This system of medicine has its importance in research and practice in the following manner:

Updated information to the clinicians: Evidence-based medicine requires the clinicians to read the information and latest research articles related to their therapeutic area. This helps the clinicians to remain updated with the latest evidences for treating patients.

Data for making treatment decisions: Because of the advancements in technology, and the availability of user-friendly databases, the clinicians now have access to the research data and knowledge. This helps clinicians to make informed decisions for better patient care.

Enhance the quality of overall care: Through the best-quality peer-reviewed articles, the clinicians have the data and procedures for caring for the patients. The data is reviewed by experts in the healthcare domain. This improves the overall quality of patient care.

Make the healthcare system more accountable and transparent: Patients and their relatives, many times, have concerns about the treatment strategy of the doctor. Evidence-based medicine makes clinicians more accountable and helps in improving transparency in the healthcare system.

Improves outcomes: It is one of the best effects of evidence-based medicine. A lot of data is available that indicates that if evidence-based medicine is applied logically, it will help in improving the overall healthcare outcomes.

Practicing the Evidence-Based Medicine

Information from evidence-based medicine is not readily available. The clinicians should be able to extract the information from the available evidence. For this, considerable experience and time is required. Following are the steps that help in effectively practicing evidence-based medicine:

Step I: In the first step, the clinicians should determine the problem that requires to be solved. The primary aim of problem identification should be such that solving the problem will result in improves outcomes and prevent or reduce the frequency of recurrent of the condition.

Step II: In the next step, the clinicians should search for evidence that may best solve their problems. For searching the evidence, the clinician should look for credible evidence. The sources of evidence may be categorized through an evidence-based medicine pyramid.

Step III: The clinicians then critically analyze every evidence to determine whether it aligns with the solution that needs to be determined. The clinicians should also ensure that the evidence should apply to the population under consideration.

Step IV: Once the best solution, through the evidence, is determined, the doctor may apply the solution in his clinical practice.

Step V: The clinicians should evaluate the performance of the new treatment strategy. They should measure if there is an overall improvement in health outcomes.


Evidence-based medicine plays an important role in research and practice. Through evidence-based medicine, clinicians can implement the best treatment regimens for their patients.

Criteria for Selecting Journal for Publication
Categories Scientific Communication

Criteria for Selecting Journal for Publication


Publishing an article in the journal adds to the academic performance of the researcher. Almost every researcher desire to publish their research articles in the reputed journal to ensure that it reaches maximum readers. Hundreds of journals are publishing the research article. This article will throw light on some criteria that will help you to select the best journal for your manuscript.

Criteria for Selecting Journal

There is no straight formula to determine the best journal to publish your manuscript. However, analyzing various parameters may help you to decide the journal that best suits you for publishing. Following are some of those criteria:

Impact factor: The impact factor is an important criterion to determine the importance of the journal. The impact factor of a journal is the measure of the average number of citations provided to the articles published in the last two years in that particular journal. The impact factor is a scientometric index.  The JCR impact factor is old and effective in providing the names of high impact journals. However, you should also have a look at other impact factor scores. It is important to note that you do not rely only on the impact factor as the high impact factor scores may also be vague.

Peer Review Process: The peer-review process is important to maintain the quality of articles. High-quality articles increase the reputation of journals. The quality journals have a strict peer-review process. All the details for the peer review process are available on the website of the journal. The journal will inform you about the peer review process, the selection of reviewers, the timeline of the peer-review process, and handling other information. Many poor-quality journals do not follow a strict procedure for peer review.

Right of the authors: While considering the target journal, also look into the policies of copyright and other rights mentioned on the website. High transparency of the journal about these rights indicates a high quality of the journal. Some good journals allow the author to have full rights over their manuscript and permit them to disseminate the research. Read the full copyright agreement while before signing.

Business model: The business model of the journal should be clearly stated on the website. All the related cost should be clearly mentioned, and the author should be surprised with any fee which was not mentioned. Further, the name of the sponsors and the mission statement of the journal should be clearly stated and should be followed.

The reputation of the journal: The reputation of the journal should not be seen in isolation and is viewed through various parameters. It includes the quality of articles published in the journal, the society under which the journal is published, the impact factor, the number of people in your circle knows about the journal and other factors.

Indexing: You should identify whether the journal is indexed in a reputed database. Indexing in the reputed database allows the article of the author to reach maximum readers. Some of the citation databases include CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus. These databases list the journal based on various parameters, and their inclusion increases the reputation of journals.

Scope of the journal: You should get information about the scope of the journal and the research domain for publishing your manuscript. Ensure that the scope and aim of the journal are in a line similar to your research. This will help you to make information available to your target readers. Websites of many journals categorically indicate the domain of research that is not under their spectrum of publications.

Journal ethics: Ethical issues are important while publishing the original research. Many journals require detailed information related to ethical aspects of your research. These include conflict of interest, informed consent form, and confidentiality. Good journals are also concerned about data and conclusion manipulation. Journal also checks the manuscript for plagiarism, fraud, segmented publications, and review board approval.

Instructions for authors: You should read and understand the “author guidelines” in detail. You should target the journal and make your manuscript according to the requirement of the journal. Many journals have limited the number of pages, images, or word count. Check the complete list of requirements before drafting and submitting the manuscript.

Editors of the journal: Every good journal has an editorial board comprising of highly reputed reviewers who have credibility in their respective domains. The website of the journal must show the name, position, and contact information of the editors. In case you require more information about the editors, communicate with the journal before submitting your manuscript for peer review.


Various factors should be considered before sending the manuscript for peer review and subsequent publication. These factors are impact factor, the peer review process, aim and scope of the journal, and ethics.