ARRIVE guidelines are important for good reporting of the research conducted on animals. There are various advantages to following ARRIVE guidelines. Following these guidelines will increase validity and transparency in research articles and will become the guiding light for further research.
Need and Importance of Good Reporting
In the present times, several journals are involved in publishing the latest researches on biosciences. To provide accurate information to the readers, good bioscience reporting related to the preclinical studies is of utmost importance. It has been seen that, because of inadequate reporting, the publication is a waste without any addition to the current knowledge. Following are the various advantages of good bioscience reporting in articles related to pre-clinical studies:
Quality information dissemination: Good reporting ensures that quality information is disseminated in the scientific community. Every member of the scientific community who is reading the research article should be well-informed about the procedures, methodologies, and other relevant information about the research. The author should validate the findings which would increase the reliability of the findings.
Helpful in advanced research: When the research article report of high-level, and all the minute information are presented in a detailed manner, it will become a guiding light for further research, whether a preclinical or clinical. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers may make define the further course of action.
Optimum utilization of resources: Good reporting helps the researchers all over the world to make optimum utilization of resources. It has been found that bad scientific reporting has ethical, scientific, and economic repercussions.
Make the research more relevant: Good reporting helps the researcher to make its research more relevant among the scientific community. If the reporting of preclinical research is of high-quality, other authors will use it as a reference which increases the authenticity of research.
Effective peer review process: Most journals conduct a peer-review process. Good journals have a stringent peer-review process and substandard reporting of the research may lead to rejection of the article for publication. It has been found that many articles do have the hypothesis or the objective of the research while some have not reported the animal selection criteria or the type of research. These fallacies might prevent the article to get published in quality journals.
Why ARRIVE Guidelines is Required?
Although several journals publish several research articles related to animals, most of them do not provide any guidelines for reporting such researches. The CONSORT statement provides guidelines to report randomized controlled clinical trials. The CONSORT guidelines were backed up by various journals as a standard guideline for reporting research articles. After that many other guidelines were developed to improve reporting qualities.
ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting In-vivo Experiments) guidelines were developed for accurately reporting animal research. These guidelines make use of the guidelines mentioned in the CONSORT statement. The main aim of ARRIVE guidelines is to increase the quality of research reporting by improving the quality and quantity of information and to avoid unnecessary studies involving animals.
ARRIVE guidelines provides a list of information that should be incorporated in reporting research in a scientific article related to animals. 20 items should be reported in the articles. To increase its validity and authenticity, the ARRIVE guidelines are prepared by taking inputs from researchers, journal editors, research funders, and statisticians. These guidelines provide a comprehensive overview of the author as to what should be incorporated into a research study. These guidelines also allow for a quick review of what was done and what is the conclusion of the study. Although the guidelines are not mandatory, however, they help in preparing a comprehensive research article for publication and improve transparency. Following are the items that should be included in the research study according to ARRIVE guidelines:
Title: Title is an important part of the research article. It should be clear and concise which depicts the research as closely as possible.
Abstract: Abstract is a brief about the complete study. The abstract should include research objectives, background, methods, key findings, and the conclusion.
Introduction: The introduction includes background and objectives. The background explains what has already been done before the research in context. Primary and secondary objectives define what the researcher wants to achieve with the research.
Methods: Methods include study designs, ethical procedures, experimental methods, animals, sample size, housing and husbandry, the outcome of the experiment, and statistical methods used. The method should be comprehensively written to ensure its repeatability without any significant difference in the conclusion.
Results: The result should be provided in detail in the research article. The results should be directed upon primary and secondary objectives. Results include determining the baseline data, the number of animals analyzed in each group, outcomes and statistical errors, and any adverse reactions.
Discussion: This section will determine how the outcome of your research fits in context to other similar types of researches. The study objectives and hypotheses are discussed in detail in comparison to prior literature. The discussion should also include various limitations of the study. The author should also mention how the outcomes of this study should impact future studies. The source of funding should also be mentioned for transparency.
Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthi I, Emerson M, Altman DG. Improving bioscience research reporting: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. Vet Clin Pathol. 2012;41(1):27-31. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2012.00418.x